has natural rights?
does not have natural rights?
Violations of rights
§4: Individual rights of adults. The right to
§5: The rights
of children and others under guardianship
§6: Animals' rights
§7: The right to life
§8: Self-determined abortion
Establishing property right and right to use
§10: Property right and free
§12: Right to organize
§13: Freedom of speech
The function of the State
§16: Military defense
Citizenship and access to the country
The limitation of the laws
The validity of the Superior
of the Superior Constitution
The paragraphs of the Superior
All legitimacy is based on not violating already achieved or directly inborn rights. Each collection of matter having the ability
to perceive happiness/unhappiness has a natural right to pursue happiness accordingly to its fundamental nature.
a) Adult humans (not being under guardianship)
plus elements mentioned in §12a. The latter have only indirectly the right to pursue happiness accordingly
to their constitution on behalf of the happiness-perceiving elements of §1a
that directly or indirectly make up their members.
b) Humans who are not at age, included embryos
with ability to perceive happiness/unhappiness.
c) Humans who are under guardianship due to low
intellectual capacity, psychical disturbances etc.
d) Superior animals – wild ones and animals
possessed by an owner.
e) The statements in §1 a-d do not exclude other
happiness-perceiving beings that will arise by evolution or human-made
technology after the onset of the Superior Constitution.
State may give extra non-natural rights to elements mentioned in a-e as long
as this does not violate the natural rights of elements mentioned in this
paragraph's points a-e. The General Constitution and
the Law give further instructions.
g) Considering limiting cases, the State has to
estimate the practical content of the actual right from an intersubjective judicial evaluation ensuring that the
natural rights of others are not violated. The State is obliged to defend all
rights of all elements of §1a-e inside the territory of the State. The
practical exercise of this defense is prescribed by the General Constitution
and the Law.
Each collection of matter that does not have the ability to
perceive happiness/unhappiness does not possess any natural rights
whatsoever. This includes plants and also early human embryos and animals
which are not so superior that they have developed a nerve system capable of
perceiving happiness/unhappiness, but does not exclude others.
An action is punishable only if it is right-violating. Rights may be
violated as mentioned in §3a,b,c:
Initiation of physical/psychical force or planning of such activity
against elements of §1a or their property. Psychical force is the use of
non-physical activity for preventing an element of §1a from using his
rational abilities during a choice of action. This includes all forms of
non-physical activity directly addressed against another individual
which this individual clearly has marked that he does not accept or which the
performer ought to know that he would not accept, and which this individual
has to do something actively to avoid (e.g. threats of physical violence,
screaming, scolding, roaring, sharp tone, defamation). It also includes
swindle and contract breach and activity that are proven to have a
significant risk to life, health or property of others. Physical force
includes murder, violence, assaults, rape, vandalism, theft, unauthorized
imprisonment, occupation against owner's wish, and hindrance of established
use of natural resources.
b) Parental omission of developing a child's
rational potential as mentioned in §5. Initiation of physical/psychical force
against elements of §1b,c which does not contribute to
develop their rational potential or to take care of their self-interest.
Initiation of physical/psychical force against elements of §1b,c without permission from the parents/guardian except
when being necessary for preventing such elements from acutely hurting
c) The use of force against elements of §1d
suppressing their fundamental natural instincts as mentioned in §6b.
An exception from point a is if there exists
an explicit acceptance of such force on beforehand (§11b).
The use of force may be free of punishment in self-defense against
physical or psychical force. Such force may only be directed against those who
have initiated force. The one who is practicing self-defense may not use more
force against the aggressor than what is necessary for escaping the
aggression and he has to make maximum efforts to prevent third party damage.
If so, all responsibility for any third party damage rests upon the
aggressor; in the opposite case, the performer of self-defense and the
aggressor share the responsibility for the third party damage.
passively to other humans or other elements will never be right-violating
unless you on beforehand voluntarily have committed to something else.
State is obliged to defend rights mentioned in §3 in accordance with the
principles of §1g.
A rational being is a being that has the ability to process the sense
perceptions by logical thinking in order to choose to perform actions so the
being can influence its own destiny through technological evolution and
thereby liberate itself from its natural instincts. Happiness-perceiving
rational beings have a natural right to
liberty according to the following definition: “the right to think up and
to choose to perform those actions which are necessary in the pursuit of
maximization of self-happiness during the life span as long as one does not
violate the similar right of others or other natural rights or their logical
a) Elements of §1a are (or function indirectly
as) happiness-perceiving, rational beings and therefore, they have the right to liberty.
of §1a may not legitimately violate the similar right of similar elements,
neither the rights of other elements mentioned in §1. This also applies for
the State nor anyone else has the right to impose any kind of slavery,
involuntary servitude or similar upon any element of §1a except as a
punishment for a right-violating action whereof the party shall have been
other non-human rational, happiness-perceiving beings that might arise after
the onset of the Superior Constitution will have the similar rights. Such a
new rational being must have a nature enabling it to respect the rights of
elements in §1 and to carry out its own technological evolution liberating
the being from its natural instincts.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §4 in accordance with the principles
a) The nature of the child is a potential
rational being and thus, a child has potential right to liberty. Elements of §1b have a natural right to parents in the sense that the
biological parents (or others who have adopted this function) are obliged to
be a leader for the child in order to develop its inborn rational genetic
potential into an adult human being who is able to use the right to liberty for maximizing
self-happiness accordingly to §4.
The duty of the parents includes the right to maintenance, care, natural
biological development (health), upbringing, and fundamental education.
is a person who voluntarily has accepted the obligations in §5a either by
making the decision of producing a baby or by entering into a contract
accepting this responsibility.
of §1c have the rights as mentioned in §5a until they can live without
guardianship – eventually for the rest of their lives.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §5 in accordance with the principles
a) Superior animals have an instinctive,
happiness-perceiving nature. According to §1, elements of §1d therefore have
a natural right to act in accordance with their fundamental instincts,
but such elements do not possess the right to liberty since they are
not rational beings.
State, in cooperation with the most outstanding experts on the subject, shall
make an intersubjective judicial estimation of the limits
of “in accordance with the animal's
fundamental instincts” for each species. The Law gives further
other rational, happiness-perceiving beings than the humans will have the right
to liberty if they comply with the criteria of §4d in the future.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §6 in accordance with the principles
a) Each individual of §1a has the right to life; i.e. the right to perform
those actions needed for sustaining life as long as he does not violate any
rights of any element mentioned in §1.
of §1b-c have the right to life in
the sense that the parents or guardian are obliged to ensure “survival within the scope of reasonable
technology” accordingly to the principles of §5a.
contemporary non-human being has the right to life.
other rational, happiness-perceiving, future beings than the humans will have
the right to life if they comply with the criteria of §4d.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §7 in accordance with the principles
a) Women have unlimited right to self-determined
abortion as long as the embryo's nerve system is not developed in such a way
that it has the ability of perceiving happiness/unhappiness (e.g. pain).
After the embryo is developed to a level where it possesses the
ability of perceiving happiness/unhappiness (e.g. pain), it is counted as an
element of §1b and has rights thereof. The woman has to give the embryo
sufficient time to leave her body (i.e. until the time point of natural
birth). Abortion is then only legitimate if the pregnancy will threaten the
woman's life or health.
Property is a physical or intellectual manifestation arising from the
use of the right to liberty to
process natural resources away from the natural state in the direction of
increased usability. Property right
is “the right to acquire property and
to dispose this property as long as the owner does not violate the similar
right of others or violates other natural rights or their logical
Right to use is “the right to continue an initiated use as long as one does not
violate the similar right of others or violates other natural rights or their
logical consequences.” This right arises by using the right to liberty to initiate the use
of an unused and non-owned natural resource or land area without processing
it away from the natural state.
a) Each element of §1a has the right to pursue
to work up property right on
non-owned land areas and natural resources. It is the preparation of the land
area that gives rise to the property
right and not the area in itself. The property
right may be transferred to other elements of §1a,b,c,e
as a consequence of the contractual
b) Each element of §1a may try to establish right to use on non-owned and unused
natural resources or land areas. The right
to use may be transferred to other elements of §1a,b,c,e
as a consequence of the contractual
right to use to professional fishing and hunting on non-owned
resources may occur by the ones traditionally having performed
fishing/hunting on a particular resource, acquire right to use to a part of the annual increase of the actual
over who has the right to establish property right or right to use
are settled by the principle “first come, first served”.
not possible to achieve right to use on property of elements of §1a
through continuing use (by prescription); rights on such property may only be
achieved through an accepting agreement.
State does not possess the right to discriminate any element of §1a in
connection with §9 with reference to “public considerations”, “the peoples'
best”, “the total maximization of happiness” or “just distribution” etc. The
State may only intervene if the establishing violates the rights of elements
worked-up property or land area for practical purposes decays to a state
similar to the natural state or to a state without increased usability
compared with the natural state, the property
right ceases, and each element of §1a has the right to pursue to
establish new property right
without compensating the former owner. The right to use ceases when the initiated use ceases. The practical
accomplishing is prescribed by the Law.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §9 accordingly to the principles of
a) As a consequence of §4 and §9, each element
of §1a has the right to acquire property as long as he does not violate the similar
right of others or the rights of other elements of §1.
Each element of §1a has the right to manage their property and
enterprises (including currency management) as long as they do not violate
any rights of any elements of §1. Such violations also include those which as
a part of a sum violate the right to
life, liberty, property or instincts according to a court's evaluation
(including negative environmental disturbances and trade with §1a-elements in
All kinds of expropriation, confiscation or compulsory taxation of
property of elements of §1a are forbidden unless the owner has committed or
contributed to a right-violating action. In extreme situations confiscation
may occur via collateral damage (§3e), without being illegitimate by the
State, when the State exercises self-defense on
behalf of elements of §1 against right-violators, but only for financing the
judicial system, Police and military defense
(strictly defined) when absolutely all other options of legitimate financing
The State does not have the right to regulate private property or
enterprises (private currencies included) of elements of §1a with reference
to “public considerations”, “the peoples' best” or “the total maximization of
happiness” etc. unless the owners voluntarily have signed a contract on this or if a right-violating action has been
State does not possess the right to prohibit, regulate or break up any
company etc. owned by elements of §1a because of dominating market position
unless the owners voluntarily have signed a contract on this. The State does
not have the right to keep any monopoly where the State prohibit private
actors of §1a from competing – except for system of justice, military and
Police tasks in a strict interpretation.
price of a product or service is settled by a contract between the parties
(§11). Considering the consumption of a product or service where the price is
not agreed on before the consumption starts, the price (and other terms) is
to be what the customer realistically could expect at the time point when the
seller accepted that the consumption was initiated, i.e. accustomed price for
existing customers and average market price for new customers (§11h).
A newly established currency may not be inflated significantly more
than what is normal for commonly used currencies unless an option for this is
very clearly stated in the currency's constitution before it was introduced
the first time. Currencies that have been
compulsory tender or that have been monopolistic by law (or these currencies'
successors) may never be legitimately inflated. Inflation is defined
as an increase in the money supply exceeding the increase in real GDP. This
paragraph is a consequence of §10f. Violation of this point is to be
considered as confiscation of property.
State may not prohibit any element of §1a to produce, sell, buy or own
products or services unless these are to be considered as a direct threat
against the rights of third party elements of §1.
Elements of §1a has property
right to outlines of
non-trivial product ideas. Therefore, patent rights
are legitimate instruments to defend the property
right, but may be restricted to a certain period of time. The same
applies for registered trademarks, design protection and copyright.
to §3a obtaining, owning and carrying weapons may be regarded as a violent
threat or rationally anxiety-promoting activity depending on type of weapon
and situation. The same applies for chemical poisons and biological
organisms/molecules that may be used for mass destruction. The State has to
make an intersubjective judicial estimation of the
border between self-defense and violation of third-parties' rights with
respect to allowing weapons. Private armies and Police forces are not allowed
since the State has monopoly on these areas. Weapons of war are exclusively
permitted for the military forces.
Property right to forest does not exist, only right to use to forestry (§9b). Therefore,
the forester may not prevent other use of the forest that does not violate
his forestry, and anyone has the right to move about there. The similar
principal applies to other kinds of outlying fields that are not processed
away from the natural state.
two areas a and b which are owned by person A and B,
respectively, or which are non-owned without being naturally localized inside
an owned area. In the natural state it was possible to move with a given
transportation (e.g. walking, running, horse riding, biking, motor cycling
without sidecar etc.) between a and b, or this was possible because there was
worked up a path as a consequence of general use of the natural state. The
area between a and b is processed away from the
natural state by C (e.g. by building a road). In such a situation all
individuals of §1a still possess the right to move freely without
preconditions between a and b and in the same way as
in the natural state.
to §15d, the State may – unless there is a prohibition in the General
Constitution or the Law – subsidize whatever activity as long as the funding
is not acquired in a right-violating manner.
Testator has unlimited right to decide how his belongings are to be
distributed after his death. Paragraphs like those stated in Contractual
freedom §11c,d,e also apply here. If the
deceased has not made any explicit decision on his inheritance, his
after-death-belongings are distributed accordingly to a presumptive testament
that expresses the most probable will of the
deceased at the very moment before his death. Rules
for defining presumptive testaments are specified in the Law.
For the whole of §10, where being relevant, it is
emphasized that all points under §11 has to be fulfilled in order to claim
State is obliged to defend the rights in §10 in accordance with the
principles of §1g.
Contractual freedom is “the
right to voluntarily renounce some natural liberty in the individual pursuit
of gaining more happiness in the life-long perspective than complete natural
liberty is expected to yield as long as one does not violate the similar
right of others or other natural rights or their logical consequences”.
a) Each element of §1a has the right to enter
into voluntary, binding contracts with other similar elements.
Contracts where an individual of §1a accepts physical or psychical
force as a part of the contract may whenever be abolished by the potential
victim without being accused of contract breach. The use of force against the
contract partner will be punishable after the withdrawal of the acceptance of
contract that has been entered by the use of physical or psychical force is
of §1b-c cannot enter binding contracts.
to §3a and §11c, a contract between elements of §1a is not valid if it is
written in such a way or entered into under such circumstances (e.g. not
being with all senses alert) that one party is deluded into entering the
contract against his rational voluntariness. Such conditions and
circumstances are specified by the Law or the practice of justice.
contract clause seemingly is very unfair, unusual or liberty-limiting,
correspondingly bold information and emphasizing must have been present
before the contract entrance in order to be valid. The demands for
information and emphasizing also increase with the degree of asymmetry in the
information between the contract parties before the entrance. Absence of such
information or emphasizing may make the whole contract or parts of it null
and void. This paragraph is a consequence of §11e. Such demands are further
specified in the Law or practice of justice.
element of §1a may break a contract without risking juridical reprisals if
the contract has such a character and has had such a duration since the last
entering that similar conditions as those described in §4c in practice have
arisen for this party. The terms are specified in the General Constitution or
parties interact voluntarily without any explicit contract, their interaction
is primarily governed by direct logical implications of other parts of the right to
liberty than the contractual freedom. If such logical implications do not exist, the parties are assumed
to have interacted on the basis of a presumptive contract defined by what the
defendant realistically should expect that the complainant accepted at the time point and circumstances of the interaction.
“automatic standard contract” is a contract that is specified in a law and is
considered to be valid between two or more parties unless the parties
explicitly have agreed on something else. The State does not have the right
to impose automatic standard contracts since they are considered to undermine
the right to liberty. All principles that are to have
automatic validity without an explicit contract have to arrive as a logical
consequence of the right to liberty
or through presumptive contracts (§11h).
limitations on the contractual freedom,
as here described, may occur for elements of §1a.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §11 accordingly to the principles of
Right to organize means “the
right to join organizations together with others and to manage the
organization in such a way that one does not violate the similar right of
others or other natural rights or their logical consequences.”
a) Each element of §1a has the right to organize with other similar
elements in order to pursue maximization of his self-happiness by making
decisions and effectuate them accordingly to the constitution of the
organization. An organization (companies and the State included) has the same
natural rights as adult humans of §1a, unless its constitution tells
otherwise, in the capacity of the owners', investors', members' or founders'
direct or indirect rights from §1a and §4.
b) The rights of an organization (companies
included) originate from its constitution, and its rights are deduced thereof
as a contract between everyone that deals with the organization. The
constitution has to comply with §11. In an “organization” without a
constitution all decisions have to be made according to the consensus
organization is only legitimate if each member may resign whenever he likes.
The resignation is not to be accompanied by other obligations than those put
down in the organization's constitution (contract) at that time when the
member entered the last time or what he specifically and explicitly has
signed later on.
A person at age has to actively accept a membership
if it is to be legitimate. A person at age who has been enrolled in
an organization as a child has to get a message (with a reasonable deadline,
which is stipulated in the Law) from the organization shortly after the age
of majority where eventual obligations of continued membership are enlisted.
The person may choose to renounce his membership before this deadline without
being inflicted any obligations no matter what his parents have agreed with
the organization earlier on.
together with another person also makes up an organization if they have a
contract on their marriage/cohabitance.
that in practice acts like private armies or Police forces are prohibited
since the State has a legitimate and necessary monopoly on these areas. An
organization is not to be considered legal if its objective is to violate the
rights of elements of §1, to plan such violations, or to directly encourage
this in a situation where the encouragement may be expected to be
elements of §1a organize, it does not give them the right to stay on the
property (companies included) of another element of §1a unless the owner
voluntarily has signed a contract on this, and if so, to the extent
prescribed by the contract.
h) An organization has no obligation to enroll
members beyond the prescription of its constitution.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §12 accordingly to the principles of
§1g, but if the organization does not possess a constitution, those
individuals representing the organization/company will be held juridically responsible.
Freedom of speech means “the
right to express one's opinion as long as one does not violate the similar
right of others or other natural rights or their logical consequences.”
a) Each element of §1a has complete freedom of
speech, also concerning religious, ethnical, racial and sex-related cases, as
long as not being in conflict with §13b,c.
has the right to express their opinion by the use of physical or psychical
force or real threats thereof. Nobody has the right to encourage
right-violating actions in a situation where the encouragement may be
expected to be effectuated.
against elements of §1a,b,c or groups thereof are
initiation of psychical force and thereby right-violating. Publicly
expressing negative views about elements of §1a,b,c
or groups thereof where the content can be proven and also is located outside
the boundaries of privacy, is not right-violating. Contempt against
philosophies, ideologies or religions etc. is not defamation; only
individuals can be defamed.
has the right to use the property of others as a tool or medium for
expressing his opinions without the consent of the owner.
State is obliged to defend the rights in §13 accordingly to the principles of
a) An element of §1a violating the rights of
similar elements or the rights of others in §1 does not possess the complete right to liberty as stated in §4a or
logical consequences thereof. The State is to impose the element with the
minimum loss of liberty that is necessary for preventing reiteration of the
right-violating action. A larger loss of liberty than this minimum is a
right-violation against the violator from the State. In order to be sentenced
to loss of liberty, the guilt of the element has to be proven beyond rational
State is obliged to impose the right-violating element of §14a so large loss
of liberty and in such a way that the probability of reiteration is minimalized. A less and different loss of liberty than
this is a State right-violation against those who become victims for the
right-violations arising as a consequence of the too low loss of liberty. A
right-violating action is free of punishment if the probability of
reiteration in practice is absent.
a contract breach the contract breaker shall i)
compensate eventual positive values his contract party has been deprived of,
ii) compensate eventual negative values he has imposed on his contract party,
and iii) possibly be
imposed sanctions by the State to deter similar contract breaches in the
future (if the deterrent effects of points i and ii
are insufficient) but only if it is a premeditated breach of
contract that is planned prior to entering the contract or if the contract
breach is decided on after the conclusion of the contract and the contract
breaker simultaneously plans for similar contract breaches in the future.
penalty is always prohibited in times of peace unless a criminal asks for
changing long imprisonment into death penalty. Mutilation and handicapping
are also prohibited as punishment.
rule is that death penalty also is prohibited during war. As an extreme
exception death penalty may be legitimate in a chaotic anarchy or war
situation where it is practical impossible to keep a dangerous murderer
and all kinds of physical and psychical force with the objective of getting
information or confessions are prohibited.
State may summon a person to interrogation, if necessary with the use of
force, if it is reasonable to suspect him (predominantly probable) for a
right-violating action. The State may keep him in custody for a shorter
period when the objective is to prevent reiteration, loss of evidences or
escape. The Law is referred for further prescriptions.
State may issue search warrants or set an element of §1a-c under surveillance
if it is reasonable to suspect him (predominantly probable) for a
right-violating action or for planning such an action.
The legitimacy of the State appears as a consequence of the fact that
the individual has a natural right to self-defense of its natural rights and
the fact the individuals have right to
a) The State is obliged to defend the rights of
the elements of §1a through system of justice, Police and military defense
accordingly to §1g. This includes being arbitrator in connection with honest
disagreement over voluntary entered contracts described in §11.
State has a legitimate monopoly on system of justice, Police and military
defense since these are prerequisites for the defense of the natural rights
of the elements of §1.
of §1a has the right to self-defense and the right to ask others for help,
but the preparation of such defense must not expose other individuals for
disproportional anxiety or anything that intersubjectively
may be perceived as threats of violence. What kind of tools being legitimate
for self-defense are prescribed by the Law in accordance with §10j.
State is an organization with its nationals as members, and with the basis
that the right to organize is a
natural right, the State has the right to do whatever it wants as long as it
does not violate the natural rights of the elements of §1, i.e. as long as
the authorities comply with the Superior Constitution and its subsequent
laws. Each element of §1a has a natural right to try to use the State in the
pursuit of maximization of self-happiness during the life span within the
limitation of the Superior Constitution, General Constitution and the Law.
State is not allowed to perform any kind of compulsory taxation, except for
what is mentioned in §10c. Nevertheless, the State may offer products,
services, insurances etc. for elements of §1a which they voluntarily may buy from
the State. The State may not sell obligatory monopoly services (§15) within
the system of justice, Police or military defense.
to §15d, the State has unlimited right to acquire, own and manage property
accordingly to §9 and §10 as long as the property is not acquired by
right-violating behavior as described in §3 after the onset of the Superior
on the State's right to property or liberty may be prescribed by the General
Constitution or the Law, but not in such a way that the obligations of the
State, as described in the Superior Constitution, are reduced.
a) The State may use military forces for the
defense of its own territory against foreign forces or internal violent
elements threatening the constitution. §3e also
applies here, and implies that military force never may be legitimately
directed against the civilian population, but the civilian population may be
a victim of third party damage as a consequence of the aggressor's actions.
State may participate in military operations abroad if the foreign State
being attacked is violating the natural rights of elements of §1 in a severe
way. The objective has to be to implement a new government that defends these
rights in a significantly better way.
The State may participate in military operations abroad in order to
help another State that has been attacked by a foreign State and where the assisted
State defends the natural rights of its citizens in a significantly better
way than what the aggressor is expected to do.
The military forces may also be used for helping another State against
rebels who fight for a more totalitarian regime than the existing one.
military forces may not be used for other military operations than those
described in §16. The military forces shall never be used if the
right-violations thereof as collateral damage in the long-term perspective
are expected to be significantly larger than what is obtained without the use
of military force.
to §4c, the State may not impose any kind of compulsory military services
upon any element of §1a-c.
Supreme Court hires the top military leaders of all branches of the military.
The top military leaders are to swear loyalty to the Superior Constitution
and the Supreme Court and nothing else. The top military leaders are to obey
the government, but in an acute situation where the government refuses to
accept the judgment of the Supreme Court, they are to obey the Supreme Court.
a) A State is an organization where membership
is equal to citizenship.
General Constitution or the Law prescribes who is to be offered citizenship
of the State. A
person at age may whenever he likes renounce his citizenship as described in
No person – national of the State or not – is to be prevented from
leaving the State's territory against his will. Exception from this is if he
has committed right-violating actions or if he is reasonably suspected for
The State may not refuse any foreigner of §1a access to the country
since all humans have a natural right
to liberty (§4a) independent of citizenship, race or ethnical origin. An
exception applies if the foreigner has committed right-violating actions or
if there is good reason to suspect that he has done or plans to do so.
Limitations also exist through the property
right by the fact that nobody may stay on the owner's property (State
property included) against his approval.
The State may decide whatever through the
General Constitution or the Law as long as the decisions are not in conflict
with the Superior Constitution. The State cannot under any circumstances
make amendments in the General Constitution or the Law (or otherwise) that
express exceptions from the paragraphs of the Superior Constitution unless
the legitimacy to do so are directly authorized by the Superior Constitution.
No redefinitions of concepts are
allowed – neither in law texts or elsewhere – in order to avoid the
intentions of the Superior Constitution. Each paragraph in the General Constitution or
the Law must contain references to the paragraphs in the Superior
Constitution on which it is
The Superior Constitution is deduced from the fact that humans
fundamentally are rational beings with the ability to perceive
a) The paragraphs of the Superior Constitution
may never under any circumstances be legitimately changed – not by general
referendum, not by resolution in the National Assembly and not by coup d'état
– irrespective of the magnitude of the majority. This is because no majority
or minority may abolish the fundamental human nature and its logical
paragraphs of the Superior Constitution in practice are abolished or changed
in spite of §19a, this is to be considered as coup d'état. All direct or
indirect cooperation with the perpetrators is punishable.
Government or the National Assembly refuses to accept a decision of the
Supreme Court, the Supreme Court may dissolve the National Assembly and/or
the Government, if necessary by the use of Police and military forces, but
not if the expected amount of third-party damages thereof is significantly
larger than the long-term right-violations from the illegitimate politics.
no time-limit for punishment of State violations against the Superior
Constitution. State violations against the Superior Constitution may be
subjected to criminal prosecution for all future irrespective of how long time
has passed since the Superior Constitution in practice was cancelled.
a) The Superior Constitution shall be
interpreted by the Supreme Court.
interpretation shall occur in a strict, stringent manner from its intention
and not from the spirit of the time of interpretation. Contrarily, the
Superior Constitution shall form the spirit of time forever.
Supreme Court is to consist of an odd number of members who are to be elected
by the judges of the High Courts, and only by these. The Supreme Court, and
nobody else, hires the judges of the High Courts. All decisions in the
Supreme Court are made by simple majority. The National Assembly, Government
or President does not possess any right to fire or hire the judges of the
Supreme Court or in other ways interfere with the work of the courts of
justice. Specified rules for the Supreme Court and other courts are given in
the General Constitution or the Law.
Government, National Assembly, President and all other elements inside the
jurisdiction of the State are obliged to obey all judgments of the Supreme
Court. Disobedience is punished accordingly to §19b,
and the Supreme Court may in such cases issue arrest warrants.
of §1a may take a law or case to the Supreme Court if he claims it to be in
disagreement with the Superior Constitution.